What is Trichostrongiloidosis?
Trichostingiloidosis – a chronic helminthiasis that manifests itself mainly in the small intestine.
The disease is common in Australia, North America, Asia, Africa. In the CIS countries, most often it is registered in the mountainous regions of Armenia and Azerbaijan, in Russia – in the Central Region and in the Far East.
Causes of Trichostrongiloidosis
For human pathogens, several species of trichostragiloid-Trichostrongylus colabriformis (Giles, 1892, Ranson, 1911), T. oxei (Codbold, 1879, Henry, 1909), T. orientalis (Jumbo, 1914), etc. cm, the female of which lays eggs containing 8-24 balls of division. Eggs are excreted into the environment with faeces, where in 1-3 days rhabdate larvae hatch. After double molting, they turn into invasive -filaria-like. Such swallowed larva after 3 weeks turns into a mature parasite, whose life expectancy is more than 8 years.
The optimum temperature for the development of eggs of many species of trichostrongilid is 20-30 ° C with a relative humidity of at least 75%. At 6 ° C and below, eggs generally do not develop, and in some species develop very slowly, at 10 ° C, the larvae hatch after 160 h, at 20 ° C – after 40 h. After hatching, they still have to mature for a certain time to the invasive stage . So, at 23-25 ° С, the larvae hatch out after 24-40 hours, and they become invasive by the end of 4 days. In general, the rate of development increases with increasing temperature. At temperatures above 32 ° the developmental speed is maximal, but the percentage of egg mortality in the preinvasive stage is very high, a further increase in temperature prevents the development of eggs. Temperatures above 40 ° C are detrimental to eggs and larvae of all species of trichostrongilid; so, at a temperature of 55 ° C eggs and larvae die within 10 minutes.
Pathogenesis during Trichostrongiloidosis
The main source of T. colabriformis and T. oksi – cattle, T. orientalis parasitizes mainly in humans and in animals is rare. Human infection occurs when eating unwashed vegetables and herbs (especially if used as a fertilizer impurities), as well as through contaminated hands.
Pathogenesis is not well understood. Primary importance is attached to the sensitization of the host organism by the products of helminth metabolism.
In humans, the trichostragulides are parasitic in the small intestine, more often in the duodenum, penetrating into the mucous membrane with their anterior end. Females lay segmented eggs. Eggs are released into the environment with faeces. Under favorable conditions, rhabditiform larvae develop in the eggs for several days. Swallowed by animals or humans, the larvae in the intestine endure two molts, without migrating, and develop into a mature parasite about three weeks after infection. Perhaps a long, up to 8 years or more, the course of this invasion (infection).
Symptoms of Trichostrongiloidosis
Most often, the invasion is asymptomatic. In other cases, there is weakness, malaise, headaches, abdominal pain, nausea, upset stool, and sometimes signs of biliary colic. Observed hypochromic anemia, eosinophilia, rarely – a sharp eosinophilic leukocytosis.
With a massive infection revealed symptoms of duodenitis and eunita (inflammation of the jejunum), pain in the upper half of the abdomen, rumbling, tendency to diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
Diagnosis of Trichostrongiloidosis
The diagnosis is based on detection in feces (Fulleborn, Kato methods) or duodenal content of helminth eggs. The value of the study increases with the study of the sample after keeping it warm for 1-3 days. Immunodiagnosis is not developed.
Treatment of Trichostrongiloidosis
There are the following treatment regimens for trichostrongyloidosis:
- Vermox – 100 mg 2 times a day for 3 days. Children under 7 years old – 25 mg 2 times a day, 7–9 years old – 50 mg 2 times a day, 10 years and older – 100 mg 2 times a day for 3 days. Consume 1 hour after meals. Efficiency – 90%.
- Kombaktrin – 10 mg per kg of body weight per day in 1-2 doses with meals. The course is 2-3 days. Efficiency – 90%.
- Tiabendazole – 25-30 mg per kg of body weight per day in 2-3 doses 1 hour after a meal. Course – 3 days. Efficiency – 60-80%.
Prevention of Trichostrongiloidosis
In order to prevent, carriers of Trichostrongilide – cattle and small ruminants – are improved by degelmentizing them, monitoring personal hygiene rules (washing hands after caring for animals or after digging), washing vegetables before eating.