What is ARVI?
Acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is a group of nasopharyngeal diseases caused by respiratory viruses (more than 200 respiratory viruses are known to medicine). The disease is characterized by seasonality, most often sick children and adults in the autumn-winter season.
There are several main types of respiratory infections:
- adenovirus infection,
- respiratory syncytial infection,
- rhinovirus infection.
The main way of infection is considered to be an airborne droplet, but a respiratory infection can also be infected through contact methods through household items, door handles, handrails in vehicles, etc. The virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes.
Causes of ARVI
Develop diseases provoke respiratory viruses. They are characterized by a short incubation period and rapid spread in the affected area of the respiratory organs, with the formation of edema, inflammation and fever.
Symptoms of ARVI
The first symptom of ARVI is a lesion of the nasopharynx – a runny nose, a feeling of stuffy nose, and frequent sneezing. Once on the mucous membranes of the virus, multiply rapidly and develops viremia, which is accompanied by fever, pain in the gol, general weakness and loss of appetite.
Depending on the type of virus, the symptoms of the disease can either practically not appear, or cause laryngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, and barley.
Diagnosis of ARVI
The diagnosis is made by the attending doctor on the basis of examining the nasopharynx and studying the symptoms. In some cases (such as influenza), analysis is required to identify the pathogen antibodies for more accurate treatment prescriptions.
In cases of complications of acute respiratory viral infections, such as a long-term cough, they may prescribe a chest X-ray to eliminate the risk of developing pneumonia.
Treatment of ARVI
Treatment of ARVI consists of:
- etiotropic (antiviral) therapy,
- syndrome therapy,
- symptomatic therapy.
All patients are prescribed bed rest until the body temperature is normalized, a milk-vegetable vitaminized diet, the use of large amounts of fluid (prevents drying of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, dilutes sputum, reduces the level of toxins, stimulates sweating).
In case of viral intoxication of the body, enterosorbents are shown – Enterosgel or Activated Carbon.
For direct control of the causative agent of the disease, antiviral drugs are prescribed: Remantadin (age limit from seven years of age), Amantadin, Oseltamivir, Amizon, Arbidol (age limit from two years), Amiksin.
Arbidol, Amizon and Amiksin have proven to be effective and relatively safe drugs for the treatment of influenza and ARVI in both adults and children.
For symptomatic treatment, antipyretic (Paracetamol (Acetaminophen), Ibuprofen, Milistan, Panadol, Coldrex, Efferalgan) and expectorant drugs can be prescribed.
For the treatment of acute rhinitis and improvement of nasal breathing, vasoconstrictor preparations are shown (Phenylephrine, Oxymethasone, Xylometazoline, Nafazolin, Indanazolamine, Tetrizolin, etc.) and, if necessary, more prolonged use is recommended preparations containing essential oils (Pinosol, Kameton, Evkazolin, etc.).
Cough with ARVI can be both dry and wet. At the onset of the disease, mucus is usually evacuated poorly, and therefore expectorant, mucolytic and mucoregulatory agents are recommended (for example, ACC). Cough with ARVI can last from several days to two weeks. If after this period the cough continues to bother you, a medical examination and correction of treatment is necessary.
In case of significant pain and inflammation in the throat, rinsing with antiseptic solutions, such as furatsilin (1: 5000) or herbal infusions (calendula, chamomile, etc.) is recommended.
In the period of increased incidence of ARVI, the following preventive measures are recommended:
- Do not visit public places (theaters, cinemas, shopping centers, hypermarkets, game complexes, cafes, restaurants, etc.).
- It is recommended to take medications based on echinacea, tea tree oil, sea buckthorn leaves, ginseng to maintain the body’s immune defense.
- You can use antiviral drugs in the dosage (see instructions) necessary for the prevention of the disease (Arbidol, Amizon, Amiksin, Amantadin, Oseltamivir, Rimantadine, Ribavirin).
- For influenza, there is a specific prevention – vaccination, especially recommended for people at risk: children, people with chronic diseases of the respiratory system, employees of medical institutions.